The two physical palettes seen here include the same colour samples, albeit in slightly different positions.
Based on the official 2010 colour chart from Jan Beyer as shared by CopMike (link and below) I attempted to identify the colours of the 2011 palette.
These are all my guesses, so there may be errors. In white are the visible changes from 2010:
315 Silver Metallic replaces 131 Silver
316 Titanium Metallic replaces 148 Dark Grey Metallic
321-326: New colours as first mentioned by Aanchir in his Complete LDD Color Chart
321 Dark Azure: A medium bright blue, possibly the colour of the ADU space suits in Alien Conquest
322 Medium Azure: A sligtly lighter blue than 321 -- release unknown
323 Aqua: the colour of two Cars in 8487 Flo's V8 Cafe (Disney Cars)
324 Medium Lavender: A dark lavender -- release unknown
325 Lavender: A light lavender, possibly the colour of the boom box in the Collectible Minifigs Series 5
326 Spring Yellowish Green: A very light green, similar to the now retired 120 Light Yellowish Green -- release unknown
I may have missed other minor substitutions (for example, has 111 Transparent Brown been replaced by a similar but distinct colour?)
Overall, it would appear that the colour palette has grown by 6 colours for 2011 -- assuming of course that this palette includes only active colours. Until an official document shows up, this is the best we have.
I should also add that 11 Pastel Blue (Maersk blue) is absent from this 2011 palette, nor was it present on the 2010 chart. This is possibly because it's a restricted (licensed) colour, so it's not available to designers except in very specific conditions.
Edited by Fugazi, 13 May 2011 - 10:07 AM.